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FLOW RATE DYNAMICS:

Probable Simultaneous Demand

When sizing pipes for water systems, engineers need to consider the likely consumption of water. But, it’s not required to provide a pipe system that supplies the maximum flow at any one time because all the taps won’t necessarily run at the same time.

When sizing pipes for water systems, engineers need to consider the likely consumption of water. But, it’s not required to provide a pipe system that supplies the maximum flow at any one time because all the taps won’t necessarily run at the same time.

PSD is measured as a flow rate in L/s, m3/s, or GPM

The conversion from loading units or full flow rate to probable simultaneous demand is dependent on what conversion method the user chooses.

H2X offers several probable simultaneous demand conversion methods:

DIN 1988-300:2012-05

AS/NZS 3500.1

Institute of Plumbing Barrie’s Book

IPC 2018

UPC 2018

BS 8558

BS 806

CIPHE

Flow Rate Calculator

H2X TOOLS

Flow rate plays a significant role in determining a water system’s longevity and its day-to-day energy consumption.

THE DIN 1988-300:2012-05 EQUATION

Volume Flow Rate

To manually calculate flow rate and convert the loading units or full flow rate of all the fixtures using the DIN 1988-200:2012-05 equation, you would have to use the following formula:

VS= a ( Σ VR)b - c

Terminology

VS - the peak flow rate

VS - the design flow rate

Where the flow rate is below 0.2l/sec, the full flow rate is used.

Where the full flow rate is higher than 500 l/sec, a flow rate result will not be provided

a, b, c - the constants (as per the table below)

IPC 2018

The following table specifies the sizing methods under the International Plumbing Code for flush tanks:

The following table specifies the sizing methods under the International Plumbing Code for the flushometer:

Dwellings:
INSTITUTE OF PLUMBING:

Barrie’s Book

Loading Units

AS/NZS 3500.1:2018:

Certifying a Cold Water Plumbing Installation

The equation below specifies the method of sizing a typical installation in accordance with AS/NZS 3500.1:2018 for dwellings:

Flow Rate = 0.03n+0.4554√n

The table below specifies the method of sizing a typical installation in accordance with AS/NZS 3500.1:2018 for loading units:

UPC 2018

The following table specifies the sizing methods under the Uniform Plumbing Code for flush tanks:

The following table specifies the sizing methods under the Uniform Plumbing Code for the flushometer:

Flush tanks
Flushometer

BS 8558/ Institute of Plumbing/ CIBSE Guide G

The BS8558 and the CIBSE Guide G are two of the principal flow rate methods employed in the United Kingdom. The loading units take the flow rate into account and the length of time that the outlet will be in use:

BS 806

The BS 806 is one of the principal flow rate methods employed in the United Kingdom for pipe sizing:

MANUAL FLOW RATE CALCULATIONS:

Things To Consider

In some cases, the flow rate of a single fixture will exceed the flow rate provided by the probable simultaneous demand calculation.

For example, a birthing pool may have a flow rate of 1 L/sec but that will get diversified to < 1 L/sec. This means you need to be aware of the pipe sizing, velocity, and pressure loss calculations in that pipe would need to be reviewed with potential modifications made.

Warm water flow rates when using the DIN calculations do not clearly/obviously allow for mixing of hot and cold water to determine the mixed flow rate. Therefore, including when using H2X, the hot water flow rates will be slightly higher than necessary so modifications may need to be made.

Continuous Flow

Continuous flow rates are added to the probable simultaneous demand flow rates to get the total flow rate on a system:

Flow Rate = Probable Simultaneous Demand + Continuous Flow Rates

Cold Water Pipes Supplying a Heated Water Plant

Where a cold water pipe supplies the cold water to fixtures and also the heated water plant that supplies the heated water to the same fixtures, the flow rate will usually take the largest of the two flow rates.​ However, in some instances, especially in the UK and US, it can be common to combine the loading units together which will allow for a fixtures hot and cold water taps to be used simultaneously.

Volume Flow Rate

Continuous flow rates are added to the probable simultaneous demand flow rates to get the total flow rate on a system:

Flow Rate = Probable Simultaneous Demand + Continuous Flow Rates

Mass Flow Rate

Where a cold water pipe supplies the cold water to fixtures and also the heated water plant that supplies the heated water to the same fixtures, the flow rate will usually take the largest of the two flow rates.​ However, in some instances, especially in the UK and US, it can be common to combine the loading units together which will allow for a fixtures hot and cold water taps to be used simultaneously.

H2X:

Flow Rate Conversions Made Easy

There are several different methods to convert fixture loading units to probable simultaneous flow rates. Each of the values will assist you in size the piping for plumbing projects.

However, manually completing these calculations can be a lengthy and time-consuming process.

Systems

Choose from cold water, hot water, warm water, or create your own

Parameters

Choose the material, spare capacity, maximum velocity, and minimum pipe size

Parameters

Choose from cold water, hot water, warm water, or create your own

Plant

Add hot water, storage tanks, booster pumps, or create your own

Results

Pipe sizes, peak flow rates, flow velocity, pressure loss, and hot water return

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